One of the earliest techniques one stumbles accross in the manipulation of Audio is the concept of equalization (EQ), both when mixing multiple tracks to create an audio output or when trying to fix up existing recordings. Equalization allows all kinds of magic such as the ability to pull out voice from a lot of background noise (perhaps that should read music not noise). But in order to work the magic you have to know what frequencies the things you want to accentuate (or suppress) operate in.
This is our evolving effort to bring all of this stuff into a single page.
Since a lot of digital audio is concerned with music we start with the basic frequencies for just over 10 octaves covering the human hearing range. Most musical instruments and even human voices are defined by the range of notes they can make, thus, for instance, a female soprano is expected to be able to output maximum power (or sing even) in the range C4 to C6 - though many will be able to accomplish higher, lower or both - from the table below we see this range corresponds to 262 Hz to 1047 Hz. So, if we want to pull out a soprano voice from the background these are frequencies we would concentrate on.
It is not, however, as simple as that due to harmonics and the fact that most of the instruments in an orchestra or band also operate in that range. But of that, more later...
The following table shows the frequency of musical notes for 10+ Octaves covering a bit more than the range of human hearing (nominally 20Hz to 20kHz). This table is based on what is called the American Standard Pitch where the note A4 = 440Hz (used as a base or tuning frequency). There is also a less frequently used (and older) International Standard Pitch where A4 = 435 Hz.
Each standard uses what is called an equal tempered interval, that is, each note is related to the next one by an equal amount. Each musical octave is comprised of 12 semi-tones (C, C#, D, D#, E, F, F#, G, G#, A, A#, B). Thus, the even tempered interval is the 12th root of 2 (12√2). For ordinary mortals this means taking the value of any note and multiplying it by 1.0594 to get the adjacent higher note (each is 12√2 more than the previous note) or dividing it by 1.0594 to get adjacent lower note (each is 12√2 less than the previous note).
Since each semi-tone is 12√2 more that the previous one by summing these differences the pitch (frequency) doubles over an octave. Thus, the same note in each octave, say C, is always twice the frequency of the previous octave. For example, C3 is 131 Hz and C4 is 262 Hz (any minor deviation from this rule in the table below is simply the result of rounding errors).
Note: All figures shown are in Hz with decimal points omitted - numbers are rounded up - for clarity and thus may differ marginally from the values shown in tables which show the decimal points in all their natural glory. In defense of our simplification technique we plead a hatred of unnecessary detail. Further, if you need those decimal points you are doing something very special and probably should not be reading these pages. However, if you are really, really interested in decimal points (and lots of them) use our Acoustic Calculator. Finally, the table uses equal tempering with a base of A4 = 440Hz. Again, the calculator will let you change this base frequency.
A standard piano keyboard (88 keys) goes from A0 to C8 (no, don't ask why). There are other keyboard instruments with a variety of numbers of keys, for example, 66 keys or 76 keys.
Most instruments are tuned to A4=440Hz, however concert pianos are apparently tuned to A4=442Hz (no idea why). Various other instruments can be tuned from A4=435Hz (International Standard Pitch) to A4=448Hz depending on the effect the musician wants.
What is ubiquitously referred to as 'Middle C' = C4 = 262 Hz. The Treble Clef is normally G4 (392Hz). The Bass Clef is normally F3 (175Hz).
Theoretically, the range of human hearing is 20Hz to 20kHz meaning that the lowest and highest notes we can hear are E0 to D10#. However, once out of the first flush of youth we practically have a hearing range of ~50Hz to around 15/16kHz (G1# to C10/C10#). Unless many years were spent in noisy clubs or discos in which case you will be lucky to hear anything at all.
C# (C sharp) = Db (D flat), D# (D sharp) = Eb (E flat), F# (F sharp) = Gb (G flat), G# (G sharp) = Ab (A flat) , A# (A sharp) = Bb (B flat). We show the # version in all cases in the table above (for brevity and simplicity) which probably has already sent real musicians into a paroxysm of teeth-gnashing.
A list of frequencies generated by things that make noises - like humans and musical instruments - but other stuff as well. As well as the fundamental frequency, most instruments have harmonics and overtones which are noted where known. But assembling this stuff is both tedious and incredibly difficult (it is unknown in some cases, horribly contentious in others or just buried in some obscure place even the search engines can't find). If you can add information use the links at the top or bottom of the page to email us. The world will be grateful. That's it. Grateful.
Note: We are now crediting reader input. Apologies to all previous contributors for the grievous oversight. Table augmented by contributions from - Thomas Wildman - many thanks.
|Piano||A0 (28 Hz) to C8 (4,186 Hz or 4.1 kHz)||60 - 100|
|Organ||C0 (16 Hz) to A9 (7,040 Hz)||35 - 110||some are said to be capable of C-1 (8 Hz)|
|Wind - without a reed|
|Concert Flute||C4 (262 Hz) to B6 (1,976 Hz)||Some start at B3 (247 Hz)|
|French Horn||A2 (110 Hz) to A5 (880 Hz)|
|Picolo||C5 (523 Hz) to B7 (3,951 Hz)|
|Tenor||E2 (82 Hz) to D5 (587 Hz)||Exceptionally F5 (698 Hz). Bb fundamental, sometimes F.|
|Contrabass||E1 (41 Hz) to E4 (330 Hz)||F fundamental, sometimes Bb.|
|Bass||C1 (33 Hz) to C5 (523 Hz)||Can start around Bb0 (A#0 - 29Hz). Bb fundamental.|
|Trumpet||E3 (165 Hz) to B5 (988 Hz)||55 - 95|
|Tuba (Bass)||F1 (44 Hz) to F4 (349 Hz)||Many play around Bb0 (A#0 - 29Hz)|
|Violin||G3 (196 Hz) - G7 (3,136 Hz) (G-D-E-A) (or C8 (4,186 Hz?)||to 10 kHz||42 - 95|
|Viola||C3 (131 Hz) - D6 (1,175 Hz)|
|Cello||C2 (65 Hz) - B5 (988 Hz (C5))||to 8kHz|
|Double Bass||E1 (41 Hz) to B3 (247 Hz)||7kHz|
|Guitar (Acoustic)||E2 (82 Hz) to F6 (1,397 Hz)||Standard tuning of E A D G B E. (Open #6 82.407Hz, Open #1 880Hz, #1 25th Fret 1,396.91Hz (1.39 KHz)|
|Guitar (Bass)||4 string E1 (41 Hz) to C4 (262 Hz).||15kHz.||5 string Bass normally starts at B0 (31 Hz) but tops out at the same C4 value.|
|Guitar (Electric)||E2 (82 Hz) to F6 (1,397 Hz) (Open #6 82.41 Hz (E2), Open #1 369.63 Hz (E4), #1 25th Fret 1,396.91 Hz (1.39 kHz) (F6)||Unlimited!||Same range as for acoustic guitars but electric guitars have more harmonics and effects and these can go way over 20kHz. But, since you cannot hear them (unless you claim to be an audiophile) - who cares.|
|Note: When using a slide with a guitar the note frequency at any single fret position does not change from that produced by a finger but the instrument's timbre does, due to the reduced dampening effect of the slide over the human finger. In particular, the sustain (of the ADSR envelope) is much longer and there is more power in the higher harmonics. This latter effect may give the impression the note has a higher frequency. Slide technique, however, typically involves moving the slide back and forth on the frets to literally slide from one note to another thus continually changing frequency to produce its distinctive effect.|
|Percussion Instruments (things you hit)|
|Drums (Timpani)||90Hz - 180Hz|
|Bass (Kick) Drum||60Hz - 100Hz||35 - 115||Some sources quote a low of 30Hz|
|Snare Drum||120 Hz - 250 Hz|
|Toms||60 Hz - 210 Hz|
|Cymbal - Hi-hat||3 kHz - 5 kHz||4 - 110|
|Xylophone||700 Hz - 3.5 kHz|
|Wind (Reed or Woodwind) Instruments|
|Bandoneon||Descant (right) side G3 (196 Hz) to A6 (1,750 Hz). Bass (left) side C3 (131 Hz) to A5# (932 Hz)|
|Clarinet||E3 (165 Hz) to G6 (1,568 Hz)||C7 sometimes possible (2,093 Hz)|
|Tenor||G#2 (104 Hz) to E5 (659 Hz)||Bb fundamental.|
|Barritone||C2 (65 Hz) to A4 (440 Hz)||Eb fundamental.|
|Humans (You and me - well, sometimes in our case)|
|Hi-Fi||50 Hz - 15 kHz||Originally thought to be the range of human hearing, and still may be depending on your age. Now revised as shown below.|
|Human Hearing||20Hz - 20kHz.||Unless you spent a lot of your adolescence in a disco or club in which case it is now probably squat. Audiophiles are supposed to be able to hear above 20KHz - or perhaps they only think they can. Over the age of 50 (some research suggests it may be even lower than that) most people are limited to a range of ~50 Hz to 15/16 kHz.|
|Hearing Sensitivity||300hz - 5 kHz||Humans are not uniformly sensitive to sound across the frequency spectrum. The most sensitivity is from approximately 300 Hz to 5 kHz with a particularly sensitive spot round 2 - 4 kHz (this phenomenon is described by the Fletcher-Munson curves). This means that for many instruments we can be more sensitive to the effects of the 2nd, 3rd or higher harmonics (and equivalent overtones) not the fundamental.
A doubling in sound power/energy results in a 3 dB(SPL) increase, 10 times power sound power/energy results in 10 dB(SPL) increase but humans preceive 10 dB(SPL) as only double the loudness.
|Sound Power||dB(SPL) rating for some common sounds.
10 - leaves rustling in a breeze
20 - whisper
30 - quiet conversation
50/55 - ambient office
70 - city street
80 - noisy office
100 - pneumatic drill (at 3m or 10 feet)
120 - jet take off
120 - pain threshold
(See also Loudness and Sound Power)
|Soprano||C4 (262 Hz) to C6 (1,047 Hz).|
|Mezzo-Soprano||A3 (110 Hz) to A5(880 Hz) (exceptions G3 (196 Hz) to C6(1,047 Hz))|
|Contralto||F3 (175 Hz) to F5 (698 Hz)|
|Countertenor||Male voice. Normally sings in the Contralto or Mezzo-Soprano range - exceptionally the soprano range.|
|Tenor||C3 (130 Hz) to C5 (523 Hz)||F5 (698 Hz) as extreme|
|Baritone||F2 (87 Hz) to F4 (349 Hz)|
|Bass||F2 (87 Hz) to E4 (330 Hz)||Harmonics to 12kHz||Avi Kaplan of Pentatonix has been recorded down to F1 (44Hz)|
This table was conributed by DJ Adi Abhishek. It is the most comprehensive we have ever seen and must have taken enormous work to put together. A truly remarkable (IOHO) piece of work.
The terms Under and Over tone are explained here. Ali quotes a frequency range for most sounds (different manufacturers, human characteristics) and then uses a single Fundamental Frequency for calculation of Under and Over tones.
We have made minor editing changes to Ali's originally supplied table and one significant change. The significant change is that the column headed Harmonics (2nd - 6th) was originally labelled Harmonic Over Tones. We made the change since, as harmonics, they all represent integer multiples of the Fundamental Frequency (a.k.a. 1st Harmonic). Overtones are not always integer multiples.
|HARMONICS (2nd - 6th)||HARMONIC UNDER TONES|
|Keyboard / Synth||20||4000||2010||4020||6030||8040||10050||12060||1005||670||502.50||402.00||335.00|
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